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Seasonal Affective Disorder

We are now ten days into autumn, and already I can feel my mood changing. Seasonal Affective Disorder (SAD) is a type of depression that occurs seasonally, typically during the fall and winter months when there is less natural sunlight. It is often referred to as "winter depression" or "winter blues." SAD is thought to be related to changes in light exposure, which can disrupt the body's internal clock (circadian rhythm) and affect the production of certain neurotransmitters in the brain, such as serotonin and melatonin.


1. Symptoms:

  • Symptoms of SAD are similar to those of major depressive disorder and can vary in severity. Common symptoms include:

    • Persistent feelings of sadness, hopelessness, and irritability.

    • Loss of interest or pleasure in usual activities.

    • Fatigue and low energy.

    • Changes in sleep patterns (oversleeping or difficulty sleeping).

    • Changes in appetite or weight (often with a craving for carbohydrates).

    • Difficulty concentrating or making decisions.

    • Social withdrawal and decreased interest in social activities.

    • Feelings of worthlessness or guilt.

    • Physical symptoms, such as aches and pains.

2. Seasonal Pattern:

  • SAD typically follows a seasonal pattern, with symptoms recurring around the same time each year. For most people, symptoms begin in the late fall or early winter and improve in the spring or summer. However, some individuals may experience a less common form of SAD, known as "summer depression," which occurs in the warmer months.

3. Causes:

  • The exact cause of SAD is not fully understood, but several factors are believed to contribute:

    • Reduced sunlight exposure: Shorter daylight hours and less sunlight in the fall and winter can disrupt the body's internal clock and affect mood-regulating neurotransmitters.

    • Biological factors: Changes in melatonin and serotonin levels, as well as genetics, may play a role.

    • Circadian rhythm disruption: Irregular sleep patterns and altered daily routines can contribute to SAD.

    • Latitude: SAD is more common in regions farther from the equator, where there are greater variations in daylight throughout the year.

4. Diagnosis:

  • A diagnosis of SAD is typically made by a healthcare professional, such as a psychiatrist or psychologist. The healthcare provider will evaluate the patient's symptoms and their seasonal pattern, ruling out other medical and psychiatric conditions.

5. Treatment:

  • SAD can be effectively treated with a variety of approaches, including:

    • Light therapy (phototherapy): Exposure to bright light, often using a light-box, for a specific duration each day can help alleviate symptoms.

    • Psychotherapy: Cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) and other forms of talk therapy can be beneficial in managing SAD.

    • Medications: Antidepressant medications, such as selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitors (SSRIs), may be prescribed for severe cases of SAD.

    • Lifestyle changes: Regular exercise, maintaining a consistent sleep schedule, and managing stress can help mitigate symptoms.

    • Vitamin D supplementation: Some individuals with SAD have lower vitamin D levels, and supplementation may be recommended.

6. Prevention:

  • Some strategies that may help prevent or reduce the risk of SAD include increasing exposure to natural light, maintaining a regular sleep schedule, staying physically active, and managing stress.


If you or someone you know is experiencing symptoms of SAD, it's essential to seek help from a healthcare professional. SAD is a treatable condition, and with the right interventions, individuals can manage their symptoms and improve their quality of life, especially during the darker months of the year.

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